When followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) go to pilgrimage of Ka’ba and according to the order of Imams of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) attend the Jama’at (congregation) prayer of brothers of Ahl -e- Sonnat and reach the superiority of performing prayer in Masjid Alharaam and Masjid Alnabi, the first thing that they notice is that their respected Imams of Jama’at do not say “In the name of Allah” at the beginning of Hamd Sura absolutely or they say it whispery, even in Jahriyya (reciting) prayers like sunset and night.
And this happened while in all available Qur'ans which most of them are printed in Mecca, Hamd Sura has seven verses which one of the is “In the name of Allah” and this matter causes amazement that why “In the name of Allah” has came to this destiny.
But when they ask us and we tell them the story of opposition of cabbalas and sects of Ahl -e- Sonnat in “In the name of Allah” their amazement increases. It is necessary here the first we refer to available Fatwas and then to different cabbalas that have been introduced in this issue.
Generally, Faqihs has been divided to three groups:
1- A group says that “In the name of Allah” should be cited at the beginning of Hamd Sura, vociferating in Jahriyya (reciting) prayers and whispery in Ikhfa’iyya (silent) prayers. These are Imam Shafe’ee and his followers.
2- Persons who say that it should be cited but absolutely whispery and these are followers of Ahmad Hanbal.
3- Another group believes that it is absolutely forbidden to cite “In the name of Allah” and these are followers of Imam Malik. Belief of followers of Abu Hanifa is similar to Malik.
Ibn Qudama, famous Faqih of Ahl -e- Sonnat, says in the book “Almughani”:
“Citing of “In the name of Allah” at the beginning of Hamd Sura and any other Sura is lawful according to most of scholars, but Malik and Uza’ee (from Sonni Faqihs) said that should not be cited at the beginning of Hamd Sura, and (about vociferating “In the name of Allah”) cabbalas that have been cited from Ahmad Hanbal altogether say that vociferating “In the name of Allah” is not Mustahab (recommended) … and it has been quoted from Ata and Tawoos and Mujahid and Saeed ibn Jubayr that “In the name of Allah” should be vociferated and Shafe’ee sect is the same”.1
In this expression all three quotes has been mentioned from them.
And we read in interpretation of “Almuneer” by Wahba Zuhaili:
“Followers of Malik and Abu Hanifa say that “In the name of Allah” is not included in Hamd Sura or other Suras of Qur'an, it is only a verse (inside) the Naml Sura … but followers of Abu Hanifa say: A person who performs prayer individually cites “In the name of Allah” in each Rak’at with Hamd Sura whispery … but followers of Shafe’ee and Ahmad Hanbal say: “In the name of Allah” is a verse of Fatiha (Hamd) Sura which is obligatory to be cited in prayer, but with the difference that Hanbalies (followers of Hanbal) says like Hanafies (follower of Hanifa) that it should be cites whispery and vociferating is not permitted, but followers of Shafe’ee says that they cite whispery in Ikhfa’iyya prayers (prayers of noon and afternoon) and vociferating in Jahriyya prayers (sunset and night prayers)”.2
Therefore the expression of Shafe’ee is closer to Shiite Faqihs, except that we believe vociferating of “In the name of Allah” in all prayers is Mustahab (recommended) and altogether believe that citing “In the name of Allah” in Hamd Sura in Wajib (obligatory) and in other Suras is known as included.
Indeed an impartial researcher amazed, because this researcher sees that holy Prophet (s.a.) has performed most of his prayers in congregation (Jama’at) for 23 years in presence of everyone and all people had heard the prayer of his holiness with their ears, but after a short time this tremendous difference has been appeared, some people say citing “In the name of Allah” is forbidden, some says it is obligatory, a group says that it should be cited whispery, another group says that it should be vociferated in Jahriyya prayers!!
Does this strange and unbelievable difference show that the matter is not normal and a political group was planning behind this program which has forged antithetical Ahadith and has ascribed them to his holiness (keep this expression in mind until we will explain that)?
Bokhari has quoted a Hadith in his Sahih which can unveil some secrets, he says: Mutarrif quotes from “Imran ibn Hassin” that when he performed prayer with Ali (a.s.) in Basra, he said: “This man remembered us the prayer which we were performing with prophet of Allah (s.a.)!”2
Yes, it reveals that some people changed everything even prayer!
“Shafe’ee” quotes from “Wahb ibn Kaysan” in the famous book “Alumm”: All traditions of prophet of Allah (s.a.) has been changed even prayer!”3
1- Ibn Qudama Almughani, vol. 1, page 521.
2- al-mizan, vol. 1, page 46.
3- Sahih of Bokhari, vol. 1, page 190.
4- Alumm, vol. 1, page 269
▲Ahadith of Prophet (s.a.) about Vociferating “In the Name of Allah”
Two completely different groups of Ahadith has been quoted about this issue in famous books of Ahl -e- Sonnat and this caused the difference of their Fatwas, and it is strange that sometimes one single teller has several antithetical Ahadith which you can see its example among later Ahadith.
These are cabbalas that not even know “In the name of Allah” as a verse of Hamd Sura, also say that vociferating of it is Mustahab (or necessary).
We suffice to five Ahadith from five famous teller of this group:
1- A Hadith from Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) whom his eminence is known to everyone that he was beside holy Prophet (s.a.) in travel and stay and solitude and congregation. Darqotni quotes from his holiness in his Sunan book that said: “Prophet (s.a.) vociferated “In the name of Allah” in both Suras (Hamd and Sura)”.1
2- According to Haakem in Mustadrak, Anas ibn Malik who was the exclusive servant of Prophet (s.a.) and was in his service from youth says: “I performed prayer behind Prophet (s.a.) and behind Abi Bakr and behind Omar and behind Osman and behind Ali (a.s.) while all of them were vociferating “In the name of Allah””.2
3- According to Darqotni, Ayesha who were with Prophet (s.a.) days and nights says: “Prophet of Allah (s.a.) vociferated “In the name of Allah””.3
4- Abu Harira, famous Hadith teller of Ahl -e- Sonnat whom several persons quoted their cabbalas in Sahih book and others from him, Says: “Prophet of Allah (s.a.) vociferated “In the name of Allah” in prayer”.4
This Hadith has been quoted in three famous books of Alsunan Alkobra2, Mustadrak Haakem5 and Sunan of Darqotni4.
5- We read in another Hadith that also Gabriel during teaching prayer to Prophet (s.a.) vociferated “In the name of Allah”6. According to Darqotni, Nu’man ibn Basheer says: Prophet of Allah (s.a.) said: “Gabriel was my Imam beside Ka’ba and vociferated “In the name of Allah””.7
And lots of other cabbalas.
It is interesting that some of scholars who have quoted Ahadith of vociferating “In the name of Allah” in their books, have added beneath some of them that tellers of Hadith were generally from reliable tellers, like Haakem in Mustadrak.
We should add here that in resources of Fiqh and Hadith of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) “In the name of Allah” has been mention as a verse of Hamd Sura and cabbalas in this matter are almost sequential and in lots of cabbalas vociferating “In the name of Allah” has been explicitly mentioned.
For more information about these cabbalas, you can refer to the book “Wasael Alshi’aa”, chapters of performing prayer (chapters 11, 12, 21, 22). Tenth of cabbalas in this issue from Imam of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) has been quoted in books like Kafi, Uyun Alakhbar Alreza (a.s.) and Mustadrak Alwasael (chapter of reciting Qur'an in prayer).
Shouldn’t we refer to Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) and follow them in such a schismatic issue, by noticing to Hadith of Thaqalayn which both sects has quoted that says refer to Qur'an and my dynasty in order not to be aberrant?!
1- Sunan of Darqotni, vol. 1, page 302, also Sayooti has been quoted the same Hadith in the book “Dorr Almanthoor”, vol. 1, page 22.
Cabbalas which do not know “In the name of Allah” as a verse of Hamd Sura or do not accept to vociferate that, like:
1- We read in a Hadith in Sahih of Muslim which is quoted from Qatada that Anas says: “I performed prayer with prophet of Allah (s.a.) and Abu Bakr and Omar and Osman, but I didn’t heard that any of them recite “In the name of Allah””.1 Notice that in this Hadith nothing has been said about recite of Ali (a.s.)!
Indeed it is wonderful that one single person like Anas says once explicitly that I performed prayer behind Prophet (s.a.) and three first leaders and Ali (a.s.), all of them vociferating “In the name of Allah”, and says in other place that I performed prayer behind Prophet (s.a.) and three first leaders, none of them reciting “In the name of Allah” and vociferating is not even thinkable.
Don’t any thinker think that Hadith forgers were involved here for counteracting the first Hadith, due to reason that will be mentioned soon, and made the second Hadith and had ascribed it to Anas, and because vociferating “In the name of Allah” by Ali (a.s.) and his followers is known in everywhere, they did not mention his name in order not to be the cause of infamy?
2- It is quoted from Abdullah ibn Mughaffal in Sunan of Beihaghi that he says: “My father heard that I was reciting “In the name of Allah” (in prayer). He said: Do you innovate in religion (Bid’at; heresy)? I performed prayer behind prophet of Allah (s.a.) and Abu Bakr and Osman, I saw none of them vociferating “In the name of Allah””.1
Again here nothing has been said about prayer of Ali (a.s.).
3- We read in Mo’jam Alwaseet Tabarani that Ibn Abbas said: “When prophet of Allah (s.a.) recited “In the Name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful” Infidels derided, because “Rahman” (compassionate) was the name of Musailama, claimant of divinity in Yamama region, and they said that purpose of Mohammad is that “Rahman”, because of this holy Prophet (s.a.) ordered that nobody recite this verse aloud”.2
Signs of forgery are obvious in this Hadith, because:
First: The word “Rahman” is not only in “In the Name of Allah, the compassionate (Rahman), the merciful” and it has been mentioned in another 56 places and it is repeated 16 times just in Maryam Sura, therefore other Suras of Qur'an also should not be recited, maybe infidels deride Muslims.
Second: Infidels derided all verses of Qur'an as we read in several verses of Qur'an, like verse 140 of Nisa’ Sura: “When you hear, some people deride and deny verse of Allah, so do not sit with them” and infidels derided Azan of prayer as we read in verse 58 of Ma’eda Sura: “When you call (people) for prayer they take it as mockery and joke”. Did holy prophet (s.a.) order to leave Azan (call for prayer) or say it whispery, in order that maybe infidels deride?
Principally, infidels derided Prophet (s.a.) himself: “When infidels see you, they have nothing to do except deriding you”3, therefore holy Prophet should hide from people!
Moreover, Allah says to his Prophet explicitly that he will remove deriders and scoffers: “Surely, we put scoffers away from you”.4
Third: Musailama was nothing that due to his name which was “Rahman” Prophet (s.a.) hides verses of Qur'an or recites them whispery, and moreover claims of Musailama expressed in tenth year after Hijrat, when Islam was in full power.
These clear facts show that forgers of this Hadith were amateur and unknown in their job.
4- We read in a Hadith which Ibn Abi Shiba has quoted in his Musnaf that Ibn Abbas said: “Vociferating “In the name of Allah” was habit of bedouin Arabs”.5
This is while we read in another Hadith that Ali ibn Zayd ibn Ja’dan says: “Abdullahs (Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abdullah ibn Omar and Abdullah ibn Zubayr) all three of them vociferated “In the name of Allah””.6
Above all, vociferating “In the name of Allah” was the way of Ali (a.s.) and it is famous in all books of Shi’aa and Ahl -e- Sonnat. Was Ali from bedouin Arabs?! Isn’t existence of these antithetical Ahadith the proof that this matter is political?
Yes! Truth is that Ali (a.s.) vociferated “In the name of Allah” and when Muaviya reached the power after martyrdom of Amir Almu’mineen (a.s.) and short period of leadership of Imam Hassan Mojtaba (a.s.) insisted on erasing all signs of Ali (a.s.) and his followers from the world of Islam, because he knew that expanding the thought and spirituality of his holiness is a great threat for his regality.
The proof of this expression is that we read in a Hadith which Malik has considered reliable in Mustadrak from Anas ibn Malik (exclusive servant of Prophet (s.a.)): Muaviya same to Medina and in one of Jahriyya (reciting) prayers (dawn, sunset and night) recited “In the name of Allah” in Hamd Sura but did not recite in the next Sura, when he finished the prayer a group of Mohajirin And Ansar (whom maybe performed that prayer for saving their lives) cried out from anywhere that: “Did you steal something from prayer or forget?!” Muaviya recited “In the name of Allah” both in Hamd Sura and the next one.7
Perhaps Muaviya wanted to examine Mohajirin and Ansar that how sensitive they are about vociferation of “In the name of Allah”, but he continued his act in Shaam and other regions.
1- Sahih of Muslim, vol. 2, Chapter of “حجة من قال لا يجهر بالبسملة ” (Proof of p eople who said do not vociferate “In the name of Allah”), page 12.
Surely, the thing that is between volumes of Qur'an is included in Qur'an and this matter that some persons say “In the name of Allah” in not a part of Qur'an and it is only for separating Suras,First:is not true about the Hamd Sura and as it has been numbered in all available Qur'ans “In the name of Allah” is a verse of Hamd Sura.Second:Why this separation did not happen for Bara’at Sura (Tawba Sura) and if it is said that, this was due to the relation of this Sura and the Sura before which is Anfal is not acceptable at all, because there is no conjunction between meaning of last verses of Anfal Sura and first verses of Bara’at Sura, while many of Suras of Qur'an has relation in meaning but “In the name of Allah” has separated them from each other.
The truth is that it should be said “In the name of Allah” is a part of each Sura, as it is in the feature of Qur'an, and if “In the name of Allah” has not been said in Tawba Sura is because this Sura begins with announcement of battle against enemies who had broke their oath and announcement of battle has no compatibility with the names “Rahman” (compassionate) and “Rahim” (merciful) which are expressing expanded and specific mercy of Allah.
1- Holy prophet (s.a.) has recited “In the name of Allah” at the beginning of Hamd Sura and other Suras (according to several cabbalas which have been quoted from closest persons to his holiness for us) and according to some of cabbalas his holiness had vociferated “In the name of Allah”.
2- Cabbalas which say in opposition of above cabals that “In the name of Allah” is not included at all, or his holiness recited that whispery all the times, are doubtful and with proofs which are available in those cabbalas themselves seems forged and cryptic politics of Bani Umayya were behind them, because it was known and famous that Ali (a.s.) vociferated “In the name of Allah” and we know that they began to fight with anything that might be considered as signs of Ali (a.s.) (although he took them from Prophet (s.a.)).
This matter clears according to hard objection of Sahaba against Muaviya and other proofs which have been mentioned before.
3- Generally, Imams of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) following Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) has learned the lesson of vociferating “In the name of Allah” from Prophet (s.a.) and they are in consensus in this issue as Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: “Dynasty of Mohammad (s.a.) are in consensus to vociferate “In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful””.1
And if we want to act to Thaqalayn Cabbala, at least, in these kinds of matters and cabbalas of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) would be noticed, then all Faqihs of Ahl -e- Sonnat like Imam Shafe’ee should consider vociferating of “In the name of Allah” Wajib (obligatory) at least in Jahriyya (reciting) prayers.
4- As a good end, we finish this discussion with two expressions from Fakhr Raazi in “Tafsir -e- Kabir” (great interpretation).
He says: “Ali (a.s.) insisted on vociferating (reciting loud) “In the name of Allah”, when Bani Umayya reached the power they insisted on forbidding vociferating of “In the name of Allah” to vanish the signs of Ali (a.s.)”.1
It clears from the testify of great scholars of Ahl -e- Sonnat about above issue that ordering to reciting “In the name of Allah” whispery or removing that was a political act.
And in another section of this book, after he quotes from famous Hadith teller Beihaghi that Omar ibn Khattab and Ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Omar and Abdullah ibn Zubayr, all of them vociferated “In the name of Allah”, then he adds: “But Ali ibn Abi Talib vociferated “In the name of Allah” and this matter has been proves sequentially and anyone who refer to Ali ibn Abi Talib in his religion, surely has been guided, the proof of this matter is the expression of prophet of Allah (s.a.) who said: Allah! Place the truth with Ali and rotate it centered to his existence”.2
1- Mustadrak Alwasael, col. 4, page 189.
2- Great interpretation of Fakhr Raazi, vol. 1, page 206