Anointment (to rub over with water) of Feet during Ablution for Prayer
▲Qur'an and Anointment (to rub over with water) on Feet
Anointment on feet is one another of issues that a group of Sonni scholars animadvert Shiite and followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) for that. Most of them know washing the feet necessary and they do not accept that anointment is enough.
While holy Qur'an has been clearly issued the order of anointment on feet and act of followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) is according to Qur'an and lots of Ahadith from Prophet (s.a.) that number of them exceeds more than thirty.
Also the act of most of Sahaba and Tabi’een (followers; persons who were after Sahaba) was to perform anointment and not to wash the feet.
But unfortunately a group of oppositions have ignored these proofs and without enough attention started to attack us and with vilifying and out of truth and out of justice expressions animadverting followers of this sect.
Ibn Kathir, one of famous scholars of Ahl -e- Sonnat, says in his book “Tafsir Alqur’an Alazim”:
Rawafiz (pl. of Rafizi; abjured persons) (he meant followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.)) has opposed in the issue of washing feet in ablution and they considered anointment enough without any proof due to their ignorance, while holy verse of Qur'an mentions the necessity of washing and act of prophet of Allah (s.a) was also according to the verse and in fact they have no proof for their expression!!1
Another group has followed their words deaf and blind, and without any investigation on the issue has accused Shiite as much as they wanted.
Perhaps they considered all persons whom they had talked to as commons, and they did not think that some day scholars and scientists will criticize their words and they will be ashamed in front of history of Islam.
Now, before anything else we look at the book of Allah, holy Qur'an. Qur'an says in the verse 6 of Ma’eda Sura (the last Sura which descended to prophet of Islam (s.a.)): “Those who believe in Allah! When you prepare for prayer, wash your faces and hand to the elbows and perform anointment on a part of your heads and feet”. It is clear that the word “أرجلكم” (your feet) refers to “رؤوسكم” (your heads) and this is the reason that anointment is necessary for both of them (not washing), even if we read “أرجلكم” with upper sound or lower sound (Attention!).2
Anyhow, holy Qur'an has ordered to perform anointment on feet.
1- Tafsir Alqur’an Alazim, vol. 2, page 518.
2- The explanation is that the word “أرجلكم ” (your feet) has two famous pronunciations. Pronouncing with the lower sound that a group of famous lectors like Hamza, Abu Omar, Ibn Kathir and even Asim (according to Abu Bakr) had performed and some other group of famous lectors had pronounced the word with upper sound and today all Qur'ans has been written with this pronunciation.
But surely there is no difference in the meaning between these two pronunciations.
Because if it is read with lower sound, it means that the word refers to “heads” and it means that perform anointment on your feet (as you perform anointment on your heads).
Is it any problem here if Shiite has acted to this pronunciation which has lots of adherents?
Moreover, if we read the word with upper pronunciation it refers to the subject which is “وامسحوا”, therefore in both forms the meaning of the verse is perform anointment on your feet.
But a group has thought that if we read “أرجلكم ” (your feet) with upper sound, then it refers to “faces” and it means that wash faces and hands and also feet!
While this expression is against Arabic grammar and it is also against eloquence of Qur'an.
But its opposition to Arabic grammar is because of the fact that never a strange sentence will be placed between referred and the phrase that is referred to, and according to words of famous scholar of Ahl -e- Sonnat, it is impossible that “أرجلكم” (your feet) had been referred to “وجوهكم” (your faces), because it has been never heard that in eloquent Arabic speech someone says: “I beat Zayd and passed Bakr and Amr, in the meaning that I beat Amr”! (Explanation of Munyat Almusalla, page 16).
Even commons do not talk like this; what about Qur'an that is the perfect example of eloquence.
Therefore as some of scholars of Ahl -e- Sonnat have said, there is no doubt that in any form of pronunciation, the meaning of the verse is that perform anointment (rub over with water) on your heads and feet during ablution for prayer.
But a group which found the order of Qur'an incompatible with their prejudice went for justifications that put human in deep amazement, for instance:
1- This verse has been invalidated by the tradition of Prophet (s.a.) and Ahadith which are quoted from his holiness! Ibn Hazm says in the book “Alahkaam fi Usul Alahkaam”: “Because washing feet is existed in tradition we should accept that anointment has been invalidated”.
While, first of all: All commentators agree that Maeda Sura is the last Sura which descended to holy Prophet (s.a.) and none of its verse are invalidated.
Second: As it will be mentioned later, we have lots of cabbalas which show Prophet (s.a.) did perform anointment on his feet during ablution in front of cabbalas that refer to wash of feet during ablution by his holiness.
How is it possible to invalidate a principle from Qur'an by cabbalas with this condition?
Moreover, it has been said about the opposition of cabbalas that, whenever cabbalas oppose each other compare them to Qur'an, cabbalas which agrees Qur'an are acceptable and the others should be denied.
2- Another person “Jisas” says in the book “Ahkaam Alqur’an” that verse of ablution is inconclusive (Mujmal) and we act as caution and wash the feet in order to perform both Ghasl (to wash) and anointment!1
While we all know that Ghasl and anointment have two separated meanings and Ghasl will never consist of anointment.
But what should have done that prejudices do not allow acting to the feature of Qur'an.
3- Fakhr Raazi says that if we read the verse with upper sound, that means “أرجلكم” (your feet) refers to “رؤوسكم” (your heads) which clearly implies on anointment of feet, still the purpose is not the anointment of feet, but purpose of anointment of feet is that do not waste water for washing your feet!2
While if this kinds of Ijtihad and individual interpretations introduce to discussion about verses of Qur'an, then nothing from features of Qur'an will remain to act as them; if we are permitted to define “anointment” as “do not wasting in washing” then all features of Qur'an can be interpret in another way.
1- Ahkaam Alqur'an, vol. 2, page 434.
2- Interpretation of Kashaaf, vol. 1, page 610.
▲Ijtihad against Nass (explicit words of Prophet and Qur'an) and Individual Interpretation
Evidences show that Ijtihad against Nass was not so ugly and unacceptable matter that it is today in the first centuries of Islam, and in other hand that respect and deference which we have nowadays in front of words of prophet of Islam (s.a.) and verses of holy Qur'an were not as strong as it is in these days.
For example when Omar said this famous expression of himself: “There were two Mut’a permitted (Halaal) in the age of Prophet (s.a.) and I forbid them and anyone who oppose I will punish him/her, Mut’a of women and Mut’a of Hajj1 (Tamattu Hajj by its specific form)”. We have heard a little or even never heard that any of Sahaba animadvert him in order that Ijtihad is not permitted in front of Nass, and in this strong form?
While if in our time greatest scholars and Faqihs of Islam say something like this, that “This act was permitted (Halaal) in the age of Prophet (s.a.) and I forbid that”, all people will be amazed and consider his expression invalid and unacceptable and they say nobody has the permission to forbid the permission of Allah and permit the thing that is forbidden by Allah, because invalidation of rulings or Ijtihad against Nass has no meaning at all.
But in the first age it was like this, and because of that we see cases that some of Faqihs let themselves to oppose divine rulings and perhaps the issue of denial of anointment of feet and changing it to Ghasl (washing) is one of examples of this act.
Maybe some persons thought that it is better to wash the feet which are often exposed to pollutions, and what benefit can anointment have, especially because in that age some of people where barefoot and did not wear shoes, and according to this one of respects to the guest was that someone brought water and washed his feet!
Proof of this expression is the text that author of Almanar has written beneath the verse of ablution for justifying the words of acceptors of Ghasl theory. He says: “Anointment of feet which are often dirty with wet hand does not make it clean, but also make it dirtier and hand will be polluted and dirty, too.
And famous Faqih of Ahl -e- Sonnat, Ibn Qudama (died 620 h.gh.), quotes from some persons that, feet are exposed to dirt and pollution but head is not like this, therefore it is preferred to wash the feed and perform anointment for the head.2 And in this way they prefer their Ijtihad and their Istihsan (preference) over the feature of verse of Qur'an and leave anointment and justify the verse unjustified.
But perhaps this group has forgot that ablution is a combination of cleaning and worship; Anointment of feet and with only one finger has no place in purifying and cleaning as some have issued Fatwa, also anointment of feet.
In fact anointment of head and feet refers to the point that person who performs ablution for prayer is obedient of Allah from top of the head to the pace, otherwise neither anointment of head is the cause of cleanliness nor anointment of feet.
Anyhow we obey the rules and orders of Allah and we do not have the right to change divine orders by our limited wisdom; when Qur'an orders in the last Sura that descended to Prophet (s.a.) that we should wash our hand and face and perform anointment of head and feet, we should not oppose that by philosophy makings of limited wisdoms of human and for justifying oppositions go for unjustified interpretations of words of Allah.
Yes, individual interpretation and Ijtihad against Nass are two major disasters that unfortunately have scratch the appearance of Islamic Fiqh in some cases.
1- Evidences of this Hadith mentioned in the issue of temporary Nikah.
And one of wonders of the time which amaze any impartial scholar is that these brothers who insist on non existence of permission of anointment of feet during ablution and insist on necessity of washing them, often say that it is possible to perform anointment on shoes,not in emergency situation but in regular situations, and not in travel but in home and in any condition.
Indeed, a man confused by this ruling, washing the feet or anointment on shoes!
But another group which unfortunately are in minority by view of Fiqh of Ahl -e- Sonnat, did not accept anointment on shoes like Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) and Ibn Abbas and Malik one of Imam of Ahl -e- Sonnat (according to one of his Fatwas).
It is interesting that “Ayesha” whom Sonni brothers have lots of respect to her Fatwas and cabbalas, says in a famous Hadith: “It is better for me that my both feet will be cut off, than perform anointment on feet!”1
This is while she was with Prophet (s.a.) day and night and has seen the ablution of his holiness.
Anyhow if these brothers did follow Ahadith of Ahl -e- Bait which are according to Qur'an, did not accept anything other than anointment on feet.
Holy prophet (s.a.) said in correct and reliable Hadith: I leave among you two valuable things, the book of Allah and my dynasty, which if you refer to them you will never be aberrant.
Imam Baqir says in reliable cabbalas: There are three things that I do not perform Taqiyya from anyone on them: “Drinking inebriants (some persons had accepted to drink of wine), anointment on shoes and Tamattu Hajj.”2
Imamiyya ( Muslims who believe in, study and prepare for the advent of the Imam Mahdi (a.s.)) Faqihs have agreement in this belief that nothing other than anointment on feet is acceptable in ablution, and cabbalas quoted from Ahl -e- Bait confirms this fact and also Hadith of Imam Baqir (a.s.) mentioned before, and there are lots of Hadith available in this issue.
But Ahadith which have been quoted in resources of Ahl -e- Sonnat are completely different with each other. Tenth of Ahadith point to the matter of anointment on feet or say Prophet (s.a.) did perform anointment on feet after anointment of head, while they impute washing of feet to Prophet (s.a.) in other Ahadith and some them anointment on shoes!
Ahadith of first group which say only anointment are from famous book, like:
1- Sahih Bokhari
2- Musnad of Ahmad
3- Sunan of Ibn Maja
4- Mustadrak Alhakem
5- Interpretation of Tabari
6- Dorr Almanthoor
7- Kanz Alummal and others that their reliability is confirmed for brothers of Ahl -e- Sonnat.
And tellers of these cabbalas are persons like:
1- Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.)
2- Ibn Abbas
3- Anas ibn Malik (exclusive servant of Prophet (s.a.))
4- Osman ibn Affan
5- Basr ibn Saeed
7- Abu Dhubyan (Zubyan) and others that are from famous tellers.
And we suffice to mention five cabbalas from them, and how wonderful is that a person like Aloosi, famous commentator, says: Anointment on feet has only one cabbala which has been made the excuse of Shi’aa!!1
1- Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) says: “I thought that sole of feet are preferred for anointment until I saw that prophet of Allah (s.a.) is performing anointment on top of the feet”.2
This Hadith quotes anointment on feet explicitly from Prophet (a.s.) and by a person like Ali (a.s.).
2- Ibn Matar says: “When we were sitting with Ali (a.s.) in mosque a man came and asked his holiness: Show me the method of ablution of prophet of Allah (a.s). His holiness called Qanbar and ordered him to bring a jug of water, then he washed his hands and face three times and put his finger in his mouth (to wash the teeth) and inhaled three times and washed (face and) hands three times and perform anointment once on head and feet to the heels”.3
Although both Ahadith has been quoted by Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) from holy Prophet (s.a.), but talk about two different story that their common matter is anointment on feet during ablution by prophet of Allah (s.a.).
3- Basr ibn Saeed says: “Osman came to the sitting place and asked for the water for ablution and tasted and inhaled (flew in mouth and into nostrils), then he washed his face thrice and each of his hands thrice and performed anointment on feet thrice and then he said: I saw prophet (s.a.) that performed ablution in this way (then asked for confirmation from people there who were a group of Sahaba of prophet of Allah (s.a.) and said:) Is it correct, you who are present here? All of them said: Yes!”4
This Hadith show that not even Osman, but another congregation of Sahaba also was confirming explicitly that anointment of feet has been the method of prophet of Allah (s.a.) during ablution. (Although it has three times of anointment, which can be Mustahab in view of some of them or mistake of teller).
4- Rifa’a says that I heard from prophet of Allah (a.s.) who said: Prayer of none of you is correct until perform the ablution as Allah has been ordered: Wash face and hands to the elbows and perform anointment on head and feet to the ankles”.5
5- It has been quoted from Abi Malik Ash’ari that said to his people: “Get together in order that I perform a prayer like prayer of prophet of Allah (s.a.) for you, when they congregated, he said: Is there anyone among you other than your tribe? They said: No, but one of our nieces (whom her husband is from another tribe). He said: niece is also considered as our tribe (this expression shows that the governing regime was preventing to explain the prayer or ablution of prophet of Allah (s.a.), for political reasons, as it was). At this moment he asked for a bowl of water and performed ablution, tasted and inhaled and washed his face thrice, also his hands three times and performed anointment on head and feet, then performed prayer with them”.6
Those that mentioned above are only a small part of cabbalas which have been quoted in famous book of Ahl -e- Sonnat by famous tellers.
Therefore those who say that there is not any Hadith quoted for this issue or there is only one Hadith that refers to anointment on feet are unknowledgeable and fanatic persons who assume that conniving and ignoring truths can abrogate truths.
These are like persons who have ignored implication of verse of Ma’eda Sura on necessity of anointment, and even have said that this verse confirms the Ghasl with the meaning of washing which its explanation mention before.
We do not deny that there are two other groups of cabbalas in famous resources of Sonni brothers opposite to the cabbalas than mentioned before.
First are cabbalas that say Prophet (s.a.) washed his feet during ablution and other cabbalas which say neither he washed his feet nor performed anointment on his feet, but he performed anointment on shoes!!
But we should not forget this certain rule of Usul science which is whenever two groups of cabbalas contradict each other; first we should go for conducting them reasonably which means to interpret them in the way that they come to a common meaning (but by rules of common comprehension).
And if it was not possible then we should present them to the book of Allah which means to compare them with Qur'an, any of them which is according to Qur'an should be accepted and the other should be left, this is a rule that has been proved with reliable proofs.
Therefore it is possible two conjunct between cabbalas of anointment and Ghasl (washing the feet) in the way that prophet of Allah (s.a.) had performed the duty of anointment during ablution, and sometimes had washed his feet for cleaning after anointment, without being a duty of ablution, and some of tellers who were watching that act assumed that washing the feet is a duty in ablution.
Incidentally, there are lots of people among Shiites who wash their feet completely after performing the duty of ablution which is anointment for cleaning.
This act seems more necessary in that environment, which due to heat of weather people wore sandals except covered shoes, because sandals do not keep the feet completely out of dirt and pollution.
Anyhow, obligatory duty of anointment had been an act other than general washing of the feet.
This possibility is also available that Ijtihad against Nass, had forced a group of Faqihs to issue the Fatwa of Ghasl and washing the feet, because they thought that dirt of feet can only be cleaned by washing, then they left the feature of Ma’eda Sura which orders to perform anointment, as we saw in words of some of scholars of Ahl -e- Sonnat in past discussions who said it is better to wash the feet because of their dirtiness and anointment is not enough.
Surely, Islam is a global religion and it is for all parts of the world in any age and time, while Shari’a is tolerant and facile. Assume that how many problems can washing the feet, five times a day, cause for people in different parts of the world and it would avert a group of persons from ablution and prayer due to this rigor.
And this is the result of Ijtihad against Nass and leaving the cabbalas about anointment.
This possibility is available that a part of cabbalas about Ghasl (but not all of them) have been forged in the time of Bani Umayya when the market of Hadith forgery prospered and Muaviya paid large amounts of money to some of Hadith forgers, because everyone knew that Ali (a.s.) believed in anointment on feet and Muaviya wanted to oppose with his holiness in anything.
Please pay attention to these two Ahadith:
1- It is mentioned in Sahih of Muslim that Muaviya ordered Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas to curse and maledict Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.)! (because Sa’d strongly abstained from this act), and Sa’d said: I heard three superiority about Ali (a.s.) from prophet of Allah (s.a.) that I will never forget and I wish that I had only one them because I prefer that over great treasures. Then he told the story of battle of Tabook and the statement of “اما ترضي ان تكون لي بمنزلة هارون من موسي” (Don’t you want to be to me like Aaron to Moses) and the important expression which Prophet (s.a.) said about Ali (a.s.) and the story of Mubahela.1
This Hadith shows clearly that how much Muaviya insisted on opposing Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.).
2- It is understood from lots of cabbalas that two groups performed Hadith forgery in first centuries.
First group was persons who were apparently righteous and pious (but credulous) which forged Hadith in purpose of approaching Allah. It seems that they were religious people that performed this act to encourage people to read Qur'an and made strange Ahadith about superiorities of Suras and ascribed them to holy Prophet (s.a.) which unfortunately number of them was not few!
Famous scholar of Ahl -e- Sonnat, Ghartabi, says in the book “Tazkaar” (page 155): There is no reliability about Ahadith which Hadith forgers made up about superiorities of Suras of Qur'an. A huge congregation of people performed this act about superiorities of Suras of Qur'an (and maybe) about superiorities of other acts. They forged Hadith for approaching to Allah and assumed that they invite people to good acts in this way (and they thought that there is no difference between lying which is one of the worst sins and Fiqh and piety!!).
This scholar (Ghartabi) quotes from “Haakem” and some other Sheikhs of Hadith tellers in the page of his book that one of pious persons forged Ahadith in superiority of Qur'an and its Suras voluntary (and intending to approach of Allah). When they asked him why did you do this? He answered: I saw that tendency and propensity of people to Qur'an has decreased and I wanted to increase they tendency to Qur'an, and when they told him that holy Prophet (s.a.) said: “Anyone who impute false statement to me, has been prepared his place in the fire”, he answered that Prophet (s.a.) said: “Anyone who impute to me …” which means anyone who say a lie against me, but I say these lies for his benefit!!
Ghartabi is not alone in quoting these kinds of Ahadith, and other groups of scholars of Ahl -e- Sonnat has also quoted this (For more information refer to the valuable book of “Alghadeer”, volume five, chapter of “Liars and forgers”).
Second group were persons who performed fabricating Ahadith in benefit of Muaviya and Bani Umayya and against Ali (s.a.) for giving huge amounts of money. One of them was “Samra ibn Jundab” who gave four hundred thousands dirhams from Muaviya and made this Hadith against Ali (a.s.) and in laud of his murderer and said that the holy verse: “And there is a person amongst people who trades his life for the satisfaction of Allah, and Allah is kind and merciful to all of his servants”2 has been descended about Abdul Rahman ibn Muljam, murderer of Ali (a.s.) and the holy verse: “And there is a person amongst people who will amaze you by their speech about the life of this world and will call Allah as the witness of what it is inside his heart, while he is the most contentious of enemies”3 about Ali (a.s.).4
We seek refuge with Allah from these lies.
Therefore it is not wonderful that they forged cabbalas about washing the feet for opposing Ali (a.s.).
1- Sahih of Muslim, vol. 7, page 120.
2- Baqara Sura, verse 207.
3- Baqara Sura, verse 204.
4- Ibn Abi Alhadid Mu’tazili,according to quote of Muntahi Almaqal, memoir of “Samara”.
▲Anointment on Shoes in the Scale of Sanity and Shari’a!!
As we said before, those who insist on denying the issue of anointment on feet during ablution and believe that washing is obligatory, also permit to perform the anointment on shoes and refer to some cabbalas quoted from Prophet (s.a.).
While generally, Ahadith of Ahl -e- Bait deny that and also several Ahadith from Ahl -e- Sonnat say explicitly averse that.
explanation is that: Consensus of Imamiyya Faqihs by following Ahadith of Ahl -e- Bait is that performing anointment on shoes is utterly forbidden, but some of Sonni Faqihs permit this in emergency situations and during travel, although some persons said it is permissible only in emergency cases.
Here questions appear, for instance:
1- How isn’t it permissible to perform anointment on feet, but it is permitted to perform anointment on shoes, whenas the discussion of washing the feet announces they say foot is dirty and it is better to wash it instead of anointment.
Can performing anointment on dirty shoes supersede washing? Lots of people have accepted the right to choose between anointment and washing.
2- Why did you leave the feature of Qur'an which says perform anointment on head and feet, and went for anointment on shoes?
3- Why don’t you consider cabbalas of Ahl -e- Bait which altogether deny anointment on shoes and holy prophet (s.a.) said that they are the means of salvation beside Qur'an?
4- It is correct that there are cabbalas which say his holiness performed anointment on shoes, but there are also other reliable cabbalas which say holy prophet (s.a.) performed anointment on the feet. Why don’t we go for verse of Qur'an in contradiction of cabbalas and do not make it the judge and as the source?
And as we investigate more in this issue we face more wonders:
We read in the book “Alfiqh ala Almazahib Alarba’a”: In case of necessity and emergency anointment on shoes is obligatory and without necessity is permitted, although washing the feet is preferred.
Then quotes from “Hanabala” that performing anointment on shoes is preferred over taking them off and washing the feet, because it is using the opportunity and thanking for the gift and also some followers of Abu Hanifa agreed with that.1
Then he claim that anointment on shoes has been proved by several cabbalas which is close to Tawatur (coming sequential).2
And more interesting is that there is an expanded discussion about conditions of these shoes and amount of anointment and its duration (how many days it is permitted to continue) and Mustahab (recommended) and Makrooh (disliked) acts and invalidators of anointment on shoes and rulings for the shoes which is worn over the other shoe and the material of shoe and the matter that it should be made from leather or other materials are enough and ruling of partly covered shoes, sandals, covered shoes and … which takes a large chapter of this book.3
5- Why don’t you construe the cabbalas of anointment of shoes in cases of emergency, travels and battles and situations that it was not possible to take of the shoes, or it was very hard? These are questions which have no answer except that prejudices have caused this scuffle about a simple matter.
I myself was watching in Jeddah airport that one of these brothers came for ablution and washed the feet carefully instead of ablution, another one came and washed his face and hands and rubbed a hand on his shoes and went for prayer.
I amazed and said if it is possible that a sage man like Prophet (s.a.) had ordered such an act which cannot find any justification for that.
After these questions it is necessary to go for main evidences of the issue and find the main point of this Fatwa among cabbalas and also its rational solution.
1- Alfiqh ala Almazahib Alarba’a,vol. 1, page 135.
A) Cabbalas which have been quoted in resources of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) and they altogether and generally deny anointment on shoes, for instance:
1- Sheikh Toosi quotes from Abi Alward: “I said to Imam Abi Alja’far (Albaqir (a.s.)) that Abu Zubyan says that he saw Ali (a.s.) that affused water and performed anointment on his shoes. He said: Abu Zubyan lies; “Didn’t you hear that Ali (a.s.) said Qur'an (verse of Ma’eda Sura about anointment on the feet) has surpassed on anointment on shoes, I said is there any opportunity for performing anointment on shoes? He said: No! Except that you are in front of an enemy and want to perform Taqiyya or ground has been covered by snow and you fear about you feet”.1
Some points understand from this Hadith:
First: While it is known in cabbalas of Ahl -e- Sonnat that Ali (a.s.) did not accept anointment on shoes, then why Abu Zubyan and others like him let themselves to impute false statement to his holiness, was there any conspiracy in that? We will know the answer of this question later.
Second: Ali (a.s.) show the way and says: Holy Qur'an surpasses anything and nothing surpasses Qur'an. If any cabbala is seen against Qur'an, it should be justified and interpreted. And for Ma’eda Sura (the Sura that verse of ablution is there) which its verses have been never invalidated.
Third: Imam Baqir also shows the way that if any cabbala about anointment of feet is accepted, should be construed to the cases of necessity like severe cold when there is the fear about the feet.
2- The late Sheikh Sadoogh (also Saduq) quotes in a Hadith from Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) in the book “Man la Yahzaro h Alfaqih”: “We are a dynasty that do not perform anointment on shoes, anyone who is from our followers, follows us and accepts our tradition”.2
3- There is a strange definition in another Hadith from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that he said: “Anyone who performs anointment on shoes has opposed Allah and prophet (s.a.) and holy Qur'an and his Ablution is incomplete and his prayer is not rewarded”.3
By noticing the cabbalas which has been quoted from Ali (a.s.) about the nonexistence of permission of performing anointment on shoes, we remember an expression from Fakhr Raazi who says in the issue of vociferating or whispering “in the name of Allah”, while a group believed on whispering “in the name of Allah” and Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) believed that vociferating is necessary: “Whenever a person choose Ali (a.s.) as his Imam, then he has grasped an inseparable lug in his religion and himself”.4
But we go for other cabbalas.
B) Cabbalas which permit the anointment on shoes are in two kinds:
First group: Cabbalas that permit absolutely to do this, like:
Marfu’a (quoted by one of Sahaba from holy prophet (s.a.)) Hadith of Sa’d ibn Abu Waqas from prophet of Allah About ablution (anointment) on feet: “أنه لا بأس بالوضوء علي الخفين ” (There is no problem to perform ablution of feet).5
It has been quoted in another Hadith which according to Beihaghi has been quoted in Sahih of Bokhari and Sahih of Muslim from Hazifa: “مشي رسول الله (ص) ألي سباطة قوم فبال قائماً ثم دعا بماء فجئته فتوضأ و مسح علي خفية”.
We translate Hadith with extreme shame and apology perforce: “Prophet of Allah went to garbage area of a tribe and urinated standing up. Then he asked for water and I (Hazifa) brought him water and he performed ablution and performed anointment on his shoes!!”6
We are sure that this Hadith is forged and has been made up by some hypocrites for striking the holiness of prophet of Allah (s.a.) and then has found its way to the books like Sahih of Bokhari and Sahih of Muslim (because of naivety of their authors).
Does any person who has the least personality perform such an act which has lots of unfavorable instrumentalities that my pen is ashamed of explaining them? How regretful is that, these kinds of cabbalas has been mentioned in Sahih books and still is being referred to them.
Anyhow these cabbalas and like them have no conditions for anointment on shoes.
Second group: It is understood from these cabbalas that anointment on shoes (if it was permitted) was limited to the cases of necessity, like:
A cabbala that Maqdaam ibn Sharih quotes from Ayesha, he said that I asked her about anointment on shoes, she said: Go to Ali (a.s.) who had traveled with prophet of Allah (s.a.), I went to his holiness and asked about this matter, he said: “When we were traveling with prophet of Allah (s.a.) he ordered us to perform anointment on our shoes”.7
This expression show well that matter of anointment on shoes was for cases of necessity, therefore he says: He ordered us like this in journeys.
And other cabbalas like these.
Noticing in total cabbalas which have been mentioned in famous resources of Ahl -e- Sonnat, show that without past prejudices:
First: According to the known rule in Usul science (science of fundamentals) (rule of conjunction between absolute and confined to confine the absolutes), we should construe cabbalas which permit absolutely to perform anointment on shoes to the cases of necessity, like travel or battlefield or other similar cases, and it is interesting that there is an expanded chapter in Sunan of Beihaghi about the time which is permitted to perform anointment on shoes and cites its limitation to three days in travel and one day in emergency situation with several cabbalas.8
Aren’t this much of cabbalas clear proof for this fact that all that has been said in cabbalas about anointment on shoes is for cases of necessity and it has no meaning that we do not take off our shoes in normal situation and do not perform anointment on our feet?
And the expression that some people say this is for facilitating for nation is not acceptable, because taking normal shoes off has no labor at all.
Second: By noticing to several cabbalas from Ali (a.s.) in famous resources of Ahl -e- Bait and Ahl -e- Sonnat that Ali said: This anointment was related to the time before descending of verse 6 of Ma’eda Sura, it shows that if there was any permission, it was for the time before descending of this verse. After descending of this verse, even in battles and travel anointment on shoes had not been permitted, because in case of trouble in taking the shoes off they had performed dry ablution, because the rule of dry ablution has been said completely following that verse.
Third: If some persons had been seen prophet (s.a.) at presence who had performed anointment on shoes, it was due to the fact that his shoes had ventilators which it was possible to perform anointment on the feet from between those ventilators.
The late Sadoogh one of famous Hadith tellers of Imamiyya says in his famous book “ Man la Yahzaro h Alfaqih”: Najashi had presented a gift to prophet of Islam (s.a.) which has ventilators on the vamp. Holy prophet (s.a.) while was wearing the shoes performed anointment on his feet. A group of persons there assumed that his holiness had performed anointment on his shoes.9
Famous Hadith teller Beihaghi in “Sunan Alkobra” has a Chapter named “Chapter of shoes which prophet of Allah (a.s.) performed anointment on them”, and from some Ahadith of this chapter it is understood that shoes of most of Mohajirin (immigrants) and Ansar (companions) had ventilators on their vamps “And shoes of Mohajirin and Ansar had cracks and fissures”.10
Therefore it is possible that they also performed anointment on the foot itself.
One of wonders of this discussion is that tellers of Ahadith about anointment on shoes are persons who had sometimes the chance of being beside his holiness, but Ali (a.s.) which was always close to Prophet (s.a.) had never accepted this expression according to famous Ahadith of Ahl -e- Sonnat.
And more wonderful is that it has been quoted from Ayesha who was often with his holiness that she said: “I prefer that my feet will be cut off, but do not perform anointment on my shoes!”11
1- Tahzib, vol. 1, Hadith 1092.
2- Man la Yahzaro h Alfaqih, vol. 4, page 415.
3- Wasael Alshi’aa, vol. 1, page 279.
4- Great interpretation of Fakhr Raazi, vol. 1, page 207.
1- Qur'an has known clearly anointment on the feet as the main duty during ablution, (verse 6 of Ma’eda Sura) and all cabbalas of Ahl -e- Bait (s.a.) and Fatwas of Faqihs of followers of them have been established on this matter.
2- Sonni Faqihs often know the main duty to wash the feet but they permit to perform anointment on shoes normal situations! And some of them limited that to the cases of necessity.
3- Cabbalas about anointment on shoes which have been quoted in resources of Sonni brothers are so antithetical that put any scholar and researcher in doubt. Some of them absolutely permit the anointment on shoes and some of them utterly deny and some others restrict it to the cases of necessity and define its length to three days in travel and one day in emergency situations.
4- The best way of conjunction between cabbalas is that the main duty is anointment on the feet (and in their opinion washing the feet) and in cases of necessity like battle and hard travels which they wore shoes instead of sandals, And as they say the term “خف”, and taking it off had problems, they performed anointment on shoes (like Jabira (splint)).